Normal Laboratory Values | Reference Guide for Pharmacists

 Normal Laboratory Values

In most cases, normal lab values are a range of values that 95% of a healthy population falls into. Nowadays normal lab values are termed as ‘reference range’ or ‘reference interval’. These are usually interpreted by laboratory testing(5, 6).

Laboratory testing involves the checking of blood, urine, and body tissue samples in order to see if the resulting lab values fall within the normal range or not. Lab values are used to determine a patient’s overall health and well-being, and help confirm a diagnosis, monitor an illness, and the patient’s response to treatment(3). Knowing the different normal lab values is an important step in making an informed clinical decision as a Pharmacist.


There are many factors that can affect a patient’s result and normal lab values but some of the most common factors are gender, age, race, the medicines taken, and the presence of any underlying condition(s)(4).


Note: Normal lab values may vary from place to place and lab to lab(6).

Normal Laboratory Values | Reference Guide for Pharmacists

Different Normal Laboratory Values

There are many laboratory tests available these days to determine different lab values. However, these are performed depending upon the disease to be diagnosed, and each lab value has its own significance.

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Summary of Normal Laboratory Values

1. Erythrocyte Studies. 

2. White Blood Cells and Differential. 

3. Coagulation Studies. 

4. Serum Electrolytes. 

5. Renal Function Studies. 

6. Glucose Studies. 

7. Liver Function Tests. 

8. Lipoprotein Profile. 

9. Cardiac Markers and Serum Enzymes. 

10. Thyroid Studies.

11. Urinalysis. 

12. HIV and AIDS Testing. 

13. Arterial Blood Gases (ABGs).


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References and Sources


  1. Corbett, J. V., & Banks, A. (2018). Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures with Nursing Diagnoses with Nursing Diagnoses. Pearson Education.

  2. Kratz, A., Ferraro, M., Sluss, P. M., & Lewandrowski, K. B. (2004). Laboratory reference values. New England Journal of Medicine, 351, 1548-1564.

  3. Normal Lab Values Reference Guide by Paul Martin, BSN, R.N. (2021) | Nurses Labs.

  4. A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE TO NORMAL LAB VALUES by RXnetwork.

  5. Normal Lab Values: Definition + What High/Low Values Mean Written by Biljana Novkovic, PhD | SelfDecode.

  6. Normal Lab Values | CLL Society.

  7. Reference range From Wikipedia, the free Encyclopaedia.

  8. Understanding Urine Tests | National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) - 2019.

  9. Urinalysis by LabTestsOnline – 2021.

  10. Serum Osmolality Test | Michigan Medicine.

  11. Urine Tests: Normal Values By Osvaldo Padilla, MD, MPH, Texas Tech Health Science Center | MSD Manual.